THE STATUS OF BAMBOO AND RATTAN IN INDIA

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THE STATUS OF BAMBOO AND RATTAN IN INDIA

Post autor: Sobal » 17 lut 2006 14:21

THE STATUS OF BAMBOO AND RATTAN IN INDIA



J. K. Rawat1, D. C. Khanduri2


1. Forest Research Institute

India

2. Ministry of Enviroment &Forests

India





1. Introduction



1.1 General

India is the seventh largest country in the world covering an area of 328.78 million ha. It lies entirely in the northern hemisphere and extends between 8oN to 37oN latitudes and 68oE to 97oE longitudes. India’s present population is over 900 million constituting 18% of the world’s population. The country has a land frontier of about 15,200 km and a coast line of some 6,000 km. The forest cover is over an area of 63.3 million ha which is 19.27 per cent of the total geographical area, of which the dense forest cover (i.e., with density over 40%) constitutes only 11.17% (FSI, 1997). India has 16% of world’s population and 15% of world’s livestock but only 2% of the geographical area and 1% of the forest area. The per capita forest area in the country is only 0.07 ha against the world average of 0.64 ha.

India has rich heritage of species and genetic strains of flora and fauna. Overall six percent of world species are found in India. It is one of the twelve mega-biodiversity countries of the world having over 150,000 species of plants and animals (Anon., 1997). About 17,500 flowering plants are found in the country of which nearly 35% are endemic. Out of the total twelve biodiversity hot-spots in the world, India has two. The richness of the biodiversity of the region is due to the occurrence of different bio-geographically and bio-climatically defined zones. There are 85 national parks and 450 wildlife sanctuaries spread over nearly 15 million ha, besides 10 biosphere reserves, which are the reservoirs of wild biodiversity and genetic resources.

India has 16 different major forest groups, which are further sub-divided into 20 sub-groups and 160 sub-divisions (Champion and Seth, 1968). The vegetation varies from tropical evergreen forests on the west coast and northeast to alpine forests in the Himalaya in the north. Between these, the country has semi-evergreen, deciduous, sub tropical broad leaved, sub tropical pine and sub tropical montane temperate forests. Bamboo and rattan constitute important species occurring widely in the Indian forests.

1.2 Bamboo

Bamboo is woody grass belonging to the sub-family Bambusoideae of the family Poacae. Worldwide there are more than 1,250 species under 75 genera of bamboo, which are unevenly distributed in the various parts of the humid tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions of the earth (Subramaniam, 1998). This natural resource plays a major role in the livelihood of rural people and in rural industry. This green gold is sufficiently cheap and plentiful to meet the vast needs of human populace from the "child's cradle to the dead man's bier". That is why sometimes it is known as "poor man's timber". Bamboos has versatile uses as building material, paper pulp resource, scaffolding, food, agriculture implements, fishing rods, weaving material, substitute for rattan, plywood and particle board manufacture. Pickled or stewed bamboo shoots are regarded as delicacies in many parts of the country. The major user of bamboo in India is paper industry, which consumes sizeable proportion of the total annual bamboo production. Bamboos are good soil binders owing to their peculiar clump formation and fibrous root system and hence also play an important role in soil and water conservation.

1.3 Rattan

Rattan are mostly trailing or climbing spiny-palms with characteristic scaly fruits, classified under the Lepidocaryoid major group (Moore, 1973) of the palm family Aracaceae (Palmae). These constitute an integral part of the tropical forest ecosystem. The innumerable pinnate leaves, which extend up to two metres in length, with their mosaic arrangement play a major role in intercepting the splash effect of rains and improve the water-holding capacity of the soil. These also play a vital role in enriching the soil by their leaf litter, which adds to the organic content of the soil (Lakshamana, 1993). Worldwide there are 14 genera of rattan comprising about 600 species (Dransfield, 1981). Rattan are very important source of livelihood for the economically and socially weaker sections of the community. These are used as raw material for variety of products having increasing demand in national and international markets. Rattan are used mainly for making ropes, furniture frames, walking sticks, polo sticks, umbrella handles, baskets, sports goods, mat making, wicker work, for stuffing and packing etc. Apart from conventional uses, these have beneficial medicinal uses as well (Bhatt, 1992).



2. BAMBOO AND RATTAN RESOURCES

2.1 Extent and Distribution of Bamboo

An estimated 8.96 million ha forest area of the country contains bamboo (Rai and Chauhan, 1998). Bamboo generally forms the under-storey in the natural forests. It is found to grow practically all over the country, particularly in the tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions where the annual rainfall ranges between 1,200 mm to 4,000 mm and the temperature varies between 16oC and 38oC. The most suitable conditions for the occurrence of bamboo are found in between 770-1,080 meter above sea level. However, two-thirds of the growing stock of bamboo in the country is available in the north-eastern states.

Bamboo forms a part of a wide variety of forest types. It may constitute a separate forest type or sub-type or occur as brakes. These types/sub-types are listed in Table 1 (Champion and Seth, 1968).

India is very rich in bamboo diversity. There are 124 indigenous and exotic species, under 23 genera, found naturally and/or under cultivation (Naithani, 1993). Clump forming bamboo constitute over 67% of the total growing stock, of which Dendrocalamus strictus is 45%, Bambusa bambos 13%, D. hamiltonii 7%, B. tulda 5% and B. pallida 4%. All other species put together are 6%. Melocanna baccifera, a non-clump forming bamboo, accounts for 20% of the growing stock and is found in the north-eastern states. Bamboo falls into two main categories according to growth pattern, (i) sympodial or clump forming, and (ii) monopodial or non-clump forming, runner bamboo.





Table 1: Distribution of bamboo in different forest types


No.
Forest type/sub type
Dominant species

1/E1
Cane brakes
Calamus sp.

Schizostachyum sp.

1/E2
West bamboo brakes
Ochlandra sp.

Bambusa sp.

2/E1
Cane brakes
Calamus sp.

2/E2
West bamboo brakes
Ochlandra sp.

Bambusa sp.

2/E3
Moist bamboo brakes
Bambusa bambos

Schizostachyum kurzii

3/2S1
Dry bamboo brakes
Dendrocalamus strictus

5/E9
Dry bamboo brakes
Dendrocalamus strictus

8/E1
Reed brakes
Ochlandra sp.

12/Ds1
Montane bamboo brakes
Sinarundinaria sp.



2.2 Taxonomical Data on Bamboo

Their distribution of bamboo in the country along with taxonomic position is given in Table 2.

Table 2: Taxonomy and distribution of bamboo species in India

Sl. No.
Name of bamboo
Description
Distribution

1.
Ampelocalamus patellaris (Gamble) Stapleton, (Dendrocalamus patellaris Gamble, Chimonobambusa jainiana Das & Pal)
A rather soft, evergreen, caespitose bamboo. Culms 7-10 m tall, 2.5-3.8 cm in diameter.
Nainital in Uttar Pradesh, Assam, North Bengal, Sikkim and Bhutan.

2.
Arundinaria simonii (Carr.) A. & C. Riviere (Pleioblastus simonii (Carr.) Nakai)
Erect bamboo with long creeping rhizomes. Culms generally monopodial, upto 6 m tall, 2.5 cm in diameter.
Arunachal Pradesh, India. China and Japan.

3.
Arundinaria racemosa Munro
A small bamboo. Rhizome sub-terranean, scarcely 5 mm thick. Culms erect upto 1.5-m tall, 1 cm in diameter.
Endemic to North Bengal and Sikkim.

4.
Bambusa atra Lindl.
A tufted reed likes bamboo. Culms upto 8 m tall, 2-4 cm in diameter.
Native of Moluccas and New Guinea and Tenasserim coasts Rutland Island (Andamans). Cultivated at Indian Botanical Garden, Calcutta.

5.
Bambusa auriculata Kurz
An evergreen, tufted bamboo. Culms 12-16 m tall, 5-7 cm in diameter.
Myanmar. Cultivated at Indian Botanical Garden Calcutta and Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

6.
Bambusa balcooa Roxb.
A tall caespitose bamboo. Culms 12-20 m high, 8-15 cm in diameter, very thick walled.
North-east India and plains of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal. Bangladesh. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

7.
Bambusa bambos (Linn.) Voss (Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd.)
A very densely tufted bamboo, producing large dense clumps. Culms strong, hollow, upto 30 m tall, 15-18 cm in diameter; branches with thorns.
Throughout India. Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

8.
Bambusa burmanica Gamble
A caespitose bamboo. Culms 10-20 m high, 7-10 cm in diameter; nodes with white rings.
Native of Myanmar. Cultivated in Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun and Indian Botanical Garden, Calcutta.

9.
Bambusa cacharensis Majumdar
A tall bamboo. Culms 20-21 m tall, 5-10 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Cachar Hills, Assam, India.

10.
Bambusa copelandi Gamble
A large, elegant, tufted bamboo. Culms upto 20 m tall, 16-19 cm in diameter.
It is so far known only from under cultivation in Myanmar and Indian Botanical Garden at Calcutta.

11.
Bambusa griffithiana Munro
A sub-scandent, soft bamboo. Culms slender, hollow, fistulose.
Manipur in India. Myanmar.

12.
Bambusa jaintiana Majumdar
This species is allied to Bambusa tulda but differs in having glabrous culm sheaths.
Endemic to Meghalaya, India.

13.
Bambusa khasiana Munro
A graceful bamboo. Culms 10-13 m tall, 2.5-4 cm in diameter, arising singly from a creeping rhizome.
Endemic to Meghalaya and Manipur, India.

14.
Bambusa longispiculata Gamble ex Brandis
Culms 10-15 m tall, 7-10 cm in diameter, green.
North-east India. Bangladesh, Myanmar.

15.
Bambusa mastersii Munro
A small reed likes, climbing bamboo. Culms not known.
A very rare species so far known only from Assam.

16.
Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch. ex Schult.

(Bambusa nana Roxb.)
A thickly growing, caespitose bamboo. Culms usually 2-4 m high, 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter.
Native of China and Japan. Commonly cultivated in India. Also cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

17.
Bambusa nutans Wall. ex Munro
A medium sized graceful bamboo. Culms 6-15 m high, 5-10 cm in diameter, loosely clumped.
Commonly cultivated in North-west India, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal. It's natural distribution is Yamuna eastwards to Arunachal Pradesh. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

18.
Bambusa oliveriana Gamble
A moderate sized bamboo. Culms 13-15 m high, 2.5-5 cm in diameter, wall thick.
Native of Myanmar. Cultivated in Indian Botanical Garden, Calcutta and Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

19.
Bambusa pallida Munro
A caespitose bamboo. Culms 13-20 m high, 5-8 cm in diameter, smooth, covered with white powder.
North-east India, Orissa, Bhutan, Myanmar. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

20.
Bambusa polymorpha Munro
A large handsome, densely tufted bamboo. Culms 16-25 m high, 8-15 cm in diameter, grey to greyish-green.
Native of Myanmar. Culti-vated and many part of India. Also cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

21.
Bambusa pseudopallida Majumdar
This species is allied to B. pallida having shrubby habit. Culm sheaths blade longer than the sheath but auricle pointed, one projecting upwards and the other downwards.
Endemic to Assam and Meghalaya, India.

22.
Bambusa teres Buch.-Ham. ex Munro
A large tufted bamboo. Culms upto 20 m high, 8 cm in diameter.
North-east India. Bangladesh.

23.
Bambusa tulda Roxb.
An evergreen or deciduous, tufted bamboo. Culms 7-20 cm high, 5-10 cm in diameter, sometimes streaked with yellow.
North-east India. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

24.
Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl.
A moderate sized bamboo, with distant culms. Culms strong, green, 15-20 m tall, 4-10 cm in diameter.
It is known only in cultivation in many parts in the country. Also planted at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

25.
Bambusa vulgaris var. striata (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Gamble
This variety differs from B. vulgaris in having clear pale-yellow culms with few narrow dark green vertical streaks or rarely light green with pale-yellow streaks.
Commonly cultivated in the gardens. Also cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

26.
Bambusa vulgaris forma waminii (Brandis) Wen
This form differs from typical B. vulgaris by its internodes 10-15 cm long, rarely longer, at base much swollen (pitcher shaped), the swollen part 10-20 cm in diameter.
Introduced in the gardens. Also cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

27.
Chimonobambusa callosa (Munro) Nakai (Arundinaria callosa Munro)
A shrubby bamboo. Culms erect, 4-7 m tall, 1.2-2.5 cm in diameter, greyish-green; nodes armed with a circle of conical spines.
North-east India. Bhutan.

28.
Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.f.) Back. ex Heyne
Densely tufted bamboo. Culms 20-30 m tall, 8-20 cm in diameter.
Its origin is not certain, planted through tropical Asia. In India it is planted in Madhya Pradesh. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

29.
Dendrocalamus brandisii (Munro) Kurz
A large evergreen tufted bamboo. Culms ashy-gray to greenish-gray, 19-33 m high, 13-20 cm in diameter.
Manipur and Andaman Islands, India, introduced in Karnataka. Myanmar.

30.
Dendrocalamus calostachys (Kurz) Kurz
A large tufted bamboo. Culms usually 20-25 m high.
Meghalaya and Nagaland, India. Myanmar.

31.
Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro
The tallest bamboo with close culms. Culms 25-30 m tall, 20-30 cm in diameter, usually 2-2.5 cm thick.
Native of Myanmar. Commonly cultivated in India. Also cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

32.
Dendrocalamus hookeri Munro
A tufted bamboo. Culms 15-20 m tall, 10-15 cm in diameter.
North-east India.

33.
Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees et Arn. ex Munro
A large caespitose bamboo. Culms 10-20 m high, 10-16 cm in diameter, thin walled.
Throughout North-east India. Myanmar, Bangladesh.

34.
Dendrocalamus longispathus Kurz
A handsome tufted bamboo. Culms 20 m tall, upto 10 cm in diameter.
North-east India. Myanmar, Bangladesh. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

35.
Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro
A loose clump forming bamboo. Culms 20-25 m high, 6-10 cm in diameter.
A native of Myanmar. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

36.
Dendrocalamus parishii Munro
Culm and culm sheath not known.
Endemic to Himachal Pradesh, India.

37.
Dendrocalamus sahnii Naithani
A caespitose bamboo. Culms 3 m tall, 2-3 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Arunachal Pradesh, India.

38.
Dendrocalamus somdevai Naithani
A caespitose bamboo. Culms 12-20 m high, 6-7 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Uttar Pradesh, India.

39.
Dendrocalamus sikkimensis Gamble
A large bamboo with caespitose culms. Culms 17-20 m tall, 12-18 cm in diameter. Culm sheaths golden-brown.
North-east India, Sikkim.

40.
Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees
A deciduous, densely tufted bamboo. Culms 8-16 m tall, 2.5-8 cm in diameter, thick walled.
Throughout India except North-east. Bangladesh, Myanmar. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

41.
Dendrocalamus strictus var. sericeus (Munro) Gamble
Similar to D. strictus, differs in having silky pubescent spikelets.
Endemic to Chota Nagpur, Bihar, India.

42.
Dinochloa andamanica Kurz
An evergreen lofty climbing bamboo. Culms 90 m long.
Endemic to Andaman Islands.

43.
Dinochloa maclellandii (Munro) Kurz
An evergreen lofty climbing bamboo. Culms 30 m long.
Native of Myanmar. Cultivated at Indian Botanic Garden, Calcutta.

44.
Dinochloa nicobarica Majumdar
A climbing bamboo. Culms green.
Endemic to Nicobar Island, India.

45.
Gigantochloa albociliata (Munro) Kurz (Oxytenanthera albociliata Munro)
A densely tufted bamboo. Culms 6-9 m high, 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter, greyish-green with white stripes.
Nataive of Myanmar. Widely cultivated in India. Also planted at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

46.
Gigantochloa apus (Bl. ex Schult.f.) Kurz (Gigantochloa takserah Camus)
Strongly tufted bamboo. Culms green or yellow, hollow, 8-22 m tall, 4-13 cm in diameter.
North-east India. Myanmar, Indonesia.

47.
Gigantochloa atroviolacea Widjaja
Clumps loosely tufted. Culm 8-12 m tall, 6-8 cm in diameter, purplish.
Native of Java. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

48.
Gigantochloa atter (Hassk.) Kurz
Large tufted bamboo. Culms upto 22 m high, 5-10 cm in diameter.
Native of Malaya. Cultivated at Indian Botanical Garden, Calcutta.

49.
Gigantochloa macrostachya Kurz
A large evergreen bamboo. Culms 10-16 m tall, 6-10 cm in diameter.
North-east India.

50.
Gigantochloa pseudoarundinacea (Steud.) Widjaja
A large evergreen bamboo. Culms 10-30 m high, 7-13 cm in diameter, green to yellowish-green, thin walled.
Native of Java. Cultivated at Indian Botanical Garden Calcutta.

51.
Gigantochloa rostrata Wong

(Oxytenanthera nigrociliata Munro)
Tufted dark green bamboo. Culm 5-8 m tall, 2.5-5 cm in diameter, thick walled, basal portion with yellowish stripes.
North-east India, Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra. Malaya. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

52.
Melocalamus compactiflorus (Kurz) Benth. (Dinochloa compactiflora (Kurz) McClure)
A arborescent, evergreen, climbing bamboo. Culms 5-8 m long, 2.5 cm in diameter, solid; climbing over tall trees.
North-east India. Myanmar, Bangladesh. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

53.
Melocalamus indicus Majumdar
Evergreen scandent bamboo. Culms 5-10 m long, arching over the tall trees.
Endemic to Assam, India.

54.
Melocanna arundina Parkinson (Melocanna humilis Kurz)
An evergreen bamboo. Culms 3-5 m high, about 2.5 cm in diameter.
Assam, India and Myanmar.

55.
Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz (Melocanna bambusoides Trin.)
An evergreen arborescent bamboo. Culms monopodial, upto 20 m tall, 1.5-5 cm in diameter.
North-east India. Bangladesh, Myanmar. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

56.
Neomicrocalamus andropogonifolius (Griff.) Stapleton
Culms semi scandent; small, open, spreading, 12 m long, upto 1 cm in diameter, hollow.
Endemic to Nagaland, India and Bhutan.

57.
Neomicrocalamus mannii (Gamble) Majumdar (Arundinaria mannii Gamble)
A slender graceful climbing bamboo. Culms 10 m long, 1.2-2.5 cm in diameter, smooth.
Endemic to Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, India.

58.
Neomicrocalamus prainii (Gamble) Keng f. (Arundinaria prainii (Gamble) Gamble; A. clarkei Gamble ex Brandis)
A small, wiry climbing bamboo. Culms upto 10 m long, upto 1 cm in diameter, almost solid.
Endemic to Meghalaya and Nagaland, India.

59.
Ochlandra beddomei Gamble
Culms erect, 10-12 m high, 3-4 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Kerala, India.

60.
Ochlandra ebracteata Raizada & Chatterji
An erect, shrubby or arborescent, reed-like, gregarious bamboo. Culms 5 m high, 2-3.5 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Kerala, India.

61.
Ochlandra scriptoria (Dennst.) Fisch.
A gregarious shrubby bamboo. Culms erect, 5 m tall, 2.5 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Western Ghats i.e. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

62.
Ochlandra setigera Gamble
Culms erect or straggling, 6 m tall, 1-2 cm thick.
Endemic to Western Ghats i.e. Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

63.
Ochlandra sivagiriana (Gamble) Camus
Small straggling reed-like bamboo. Culms 5 m high, 2 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Tamil Nadu, India.

64.
Ochlandra talbotii Brandis
Erect, arborescent bamboo. Culms 3-6 m tall, 1.2-2 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Karnataka, India.

65.
Ochlandra travancorica Benth.
Erect, shrubby or arborescent bamboo. Culms 2-6 m tall, 2.5-5 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

66.
Ochlandra travancorica var. hirsuta Gamble
Leaves thick, margin more cartilaginous. Spikelets thickly clothed with light brown valvety pubescence, the rest as in O. travancorica.
Endemic to Tamil Nadu and Kerala, India.

67.
Ochlandra wightii (Munro) Fischer
An erect shrubby bamboo. Culms 6-7 m tall, 1.5-2 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Tamil Nadu and Kerala, India.

68.
Pseudoxytenanthera bourdillonii (Gamble) Naithani (Oxytenanthera bourdillonii Gamble)
A moderate sized bamboo, open clump forming. Culms 6-9 m tall, 2 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Kerala, India.

69.
Pseudoxytenanthera monadelpha (Thw.) Soder. & Ellis (Oxytenanthera monadelpha (Thw.) Alston)
A straggling or sub-scandent bamboo. Culms soft, 8 m tall, 1-1.5 cm in diameter.
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala, India. Sri Lanka.

70.
Pseudoxytenanthera ritcheyi (Munro) Naithani (Oxytenanthera ritcheyi (Munro) Blatt. & McCann)
A medium sized bamboo. Culms 3-5 m high, 2.5 cm in diameter, nearly solid, covered with deciduous, soft, pale-yellow, vavely tomentose.
Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala, India.

71.
Pseudoxytenanthera stocksii (Munro) Naithani (Oxytenanthera stocksii Munro)
A medium sized bamboo. Culms upto 9 m tall, 2.5 cm in diameter, glabrous.
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala and Goa, India.

72.
Phyllostachys aurea Carr. ex A. & C. Rivier.
Tufted bamboo with creeping rhizome. Culms 2-8 m tall, 2-3 cm in diameter; lower internodes often irregularly shortened and swollen.
Native of China. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

73.
Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb. & Zucc.
Rhizomes monopodial, 10-30 mm thick. Culms 9-22 m high, 10-15 cm in diameter, flattened on one side.
Native of China. Reported from Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim, India.

74.
Phyllostachys mannii Gamble (Phyllostachys assamica Gamble ex Brandis)
A caespitose bamboo. Culms 5-6 m tall, 2.5-3 cm in diameter, green or yellow, flattened on on side.
Endemic to Assam, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, India.

75.
Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Munro
Rhizome long creeping. Culms 3-6 m tall, 2-4 cm in diameter, olive green at first, becoming purplish in the second year, ultimately purplish-black.
Native of China. Cultivated at Ward lake, Shillong, Meghalaya.

76.
Pseudosasa japonica (Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.) Makino ex Nakai
A shrubby bamboo. Culms 2-5 m tall, 5-15 mm in diameter, green.
Native of Japan. Cultivated in temperate gardens of India.

77.
Sasa palmata (Marl. ex Burb.) Camus
A shrubby bamboo. Culms 1-1.5 m tall, 6-8 mm in diameter.
Native of Japan. Cultivated in temperate garden of India.

78.
Schizostachyum arunachalensis Naithani
A semiscandent bamboo with long internodes. Culms 10-15 m tall 3 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Arunachal Pradesh, India.

79.
Schizostachyum beddomei (Fischer) Majumdar (Teinostachyum beddomei Fischer)
Tall, semi scandent bamboo. Culm 3-6 m high, 2.5-3.7 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Western Ghats.

80.
Schizostachyum capitatum (Munro) Majumdar (Cephalostachyum capitatum Munro)
A shrubby, sub-arborescent bamboo. Culms 4-10 m long, 2.5-3 cm in diameter.
North-east India, Sikkim and Bhutan.

81.
Schizostachyum dullooa (Gamble) Majumdar (Teinostachyum dullooa Gamble)
Moderate sized to large tufted bamboo, sometimes scandent. Culms 6-9 m tall, 2.5-7.5 cm in diameter.
North-east India. Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar.

82.
Schizostachyum flavescens (Kurz) Majumdar (Cephalostachyum falvescens Kurz)
An evergreen tufted, semi-arborescent bamboo. Culms 3-6 m tall, 2.5-3.8 cm in diameter.
Andaman Islands, India. Myanmar.

83.
Schizostachyum griffithii (Munro) Majumdar (Teinostachyum griffithii Munro)
Straggling or sub-erect bamboo. Culms drooping, 7-16 m long, 1.5-2 cm in diameter.
Endemic to North-east India.

84.
Schizostachyum helferi (Munro) Majumdar (Teinostachyum helferi (Munro) Gamble)
Evergreen tufted bamboo, forming large impenetrable thickets. Culms 6-12 m high, 2-4 cm in diameter.
Meghalaya, India. Myanmar.

85.
Schizostachyum kurzii (Munro) Majumdar (Bambusa schizostachyoides (Kurz) Kurz ex Gamble)
An arborescent bamboo. Culms 5-8 m high, 8-10 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Andaman Islands, India.

86.
Schizostachyum latifolium (Munro) Majumdar (Cephalostachyum latifolium Munro; C. fuchsianum Gamble)
A medium sized, arborescent, semi scandent bamboo. Culm 5 m tall.
North-east India. Bhutan.

87.
Schizostachyum mannii Majumdar
Shrubby bamboo.
Endemic to North-east India.

88.
Schizostachyum pallidum (Munro) Majumdar (Cephalostachyum pallidum Munro)
A shrubby bamboo. Culms not more than 2 m tall.
Endemic to North-east India.

89.
Schizostachyum pergracile (Munro) Majumdar (Cephalostachyum pergracile Munro)
A arborescent, tufted bamboo. Culms 10-30 m tall, 5-8 cm in diameter.
North-east India, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh. Myanmar. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

90.
Schizostachyum polymorphum (Munro) Majumdar (Pseudostachyum polymorphum Munro)
A large shrubby or semi-arborescent bamboo with single culms. Culms 7 m tall, 2 cm in diameter, thin walled.
North-east India, Sikkim. Bhutan, Myanmar.

91.
Schizostachyum rogersii Brandis
Culm tufted, weak, upto 9 m high, 2 cm in diameter.
A very rare species, endemic to Andaman Islands, India.

92.
Schizostachyum seshagirianum Majumdar
A scandent bamboo with tufted branches. Culms 5-8 m tall, 7-10 cm in diameter, thin walled.
Endemic to Arunachal Pradesh, India.

93.
Sinarundinaria anceps (Mitf.) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria jaunsarensis Gamble; Chimonobambusa jaunsarensis (Gamble) Bahadur & Naithani)
A graceful bamboo, with single stem from creeping rhizome. Culms 2-6 m tall, 1.3-2 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Uttar Pradesh Hills.

94.
Sinarundinaria arunachalensis Naithani (Chimonocalamus longispiculatus Majumdar)
Plant unarmed. Leaves with setaceous apices. Spikelets green, many flowered in terminal panicles.
Endemic to Arunachal Pradesh, India.

95.
Sinarundinaria densifolia (Munro) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria densifolia Munro)
A small densely gregarious shrubby bamboo. Culms 2-2.5 m tall, upto one cm in diameter, thin walled.
Anamalais hills, Kerala. Sri Lanka.

96.
Sinarundinaria elegans (Kurz) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria elegans Kurz)
An evergreen, slender, tufted bamboo. Culms green, yellow to dark purple, 4-7 m tall, about 1.5 cm in diameter.
Manipur, Nagaland, India. Myanmar.

97.
Sinarundinaria falcata (Nees) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria falcata Nees; Arundinaria khasiana Munro; A. gracilis (Hort. Ex Riv.) Blan.)
A gregarious shrubby bamboo with annual culms from a central rootstock. Culms usually 2-4 m high, 1-2 cm in diameter.
Himalaya from Kashmir to Bhutan and Meghalaya, Mizoram. Myanmar.

98.
Sinarundinaria griffithiana (Munro) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria griffithiana Munro)
An erect gregarious bamboo. Culms 3-10 m tall, olive green, 2.5-5 cm in girth, nodes circled with 2 cm long spines.
Eastern Himalaya, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram. Myanmar.

99.
Sinarundinaria hirsuta (Munro) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria hirsuta Munro)
A shrubby bamboo with single stem from the rhizomes. Culms 1-2.5 m tall, 5-7.5 mm in diameter.
Endemic to Meghalaya, India.

100.
Sinarundinaria hookeriana (Munro) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria hookeriana Munro)
A caespitose bamboo. Culms 5-6 m tall, glaucous green, covered with a white scurf when young, 2-4 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Eastern Himalaya.

101.
Sinarundinaria intermedia (Munro) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria intermedia Munro; Arundinaria suberecta Munro)
A slender caespitose bamboo. Culms smooth, greyish-green, 3-4 m tall, 1-1.5 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Eastern Himalaya.

102.
Sinarundinaria longispiculata Chao & Renvoize
Rhizome not known. Culms erect, yellowish-valvety under the nodes, bearing thorns on the nodes.
Endemic to Mizoram, India.

103.
Sinarundinaria maling (Gamble) Campbell (Arundinaria maling Gamble)
An erect shrubby bamboo. Rhizome stout, sub-terraneous producing single culms at intervals. Culms 3-9 m tall, 2-3 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Darjeeling hills North Bengal and Sikkim.

104.
Sinarundinaria microphylla (Munro) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria microphylla Munro)
A gregarious, low, caespitose shrubby bamboo. Culms 60-120 cm high.
Kerala Hills and Bhutan.

105.
Sinarundinaria naglandiana Naithani
Erect bamboo. Culms caespitose, 3-7 m high, olive-green, 2.5 cm in diameter; node bearing a circle stout short spines.
Endemic to Nagaland, India.

106.
Sinarundinaria pantlingii (Gamble) Campbell (Arundinaria pantlingii Gamble)
An erect shrubb bamboo. Culms upto 9 m tall, slightly hairy below the nodes, 1.5 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Sikkim and Darjeeling hills, North Bengal, India.

107.
Sinarundinaria polystachya (Kurz ex Gamble) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria polystachya Kurz ex Gamble)
A small shrubby bamboo. Culms rather soft, 7 m tall, 2 cm in diameter.
Sikkim, Darjeeling hills, North Bengal and Meghalaya, India.

108.
Sinarundinaria rolloana (Gamble) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria rolloana Gamble)
A shrubby bamboo with stoloniferous distant culms. Culms 2.5 m tall, 2 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Nagaland, India.

109.
Sinarundinaria walkeriana (Munro) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria walkeriana Munro)
A shrubby bamboo. Culms slender 4 m tall, dark green.
Hills of Kerala and Tamil` Nadu. Sri Lanka.

110.
Sinarundinaria wightiana (Nees) Chao & Renvoize (Arundinaria wightiana Nees)
An erect gregarious shrubby bamboo. Culms slender, 1.5-3 m tall, dark green, 2 cm in diameter.
Endemic to Nilgiris and Palni hills of South India.

111.
Thamnocalamus aristatus (Gamble) Camus (Arundinaria aristata Gamble)
A tufted shrubby bamboo. Culms at first mealy white, then green, turning to shining yellow, 2-5 m high, 12-15 mm in diameter.
Himalaya from Eastern Nepal to Arunachal Pradesh.

112.
Thamnocalamus falconeri Hk.f. ex Munro
A tall shrubby bamboo. Culms fistular, 12-15 m tall, olive green, 1.2-2 cm in diameter.
Himalaya from Uttar Pradesh to Arunachal Pradesh.

113.
Thamnocalamus spathiflorus (Trin.) Munro (Arundinaria spathiflora Trin.)
A gregarious caespitose shrubby bamboo. Culms 4-6 m high, 1-2 cm in diameter, glaucous-green first, afterwards turning yellow.
Endemic to North-west and Central Himalaya.

114.
Thyrsostachys oliveri Gamble
A handsome, densely caespitose bamboo. Culms 5-20 m tall, 5 cm in diameter, with whitish silky surface when young, green or yellowish at maturity.
Native of Myanmar. Cultivated in many parts in country. Also introduced at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

115.
Thyrsostachys regia (Munro) Bennet (Thyrsostachys siamensis Gamble)
A caespitose deciduous bamboo. Culms usually 8-10 m tall, 4-5 cm in diameter, thick walled.
Native of Thailand. Cultivated in many parts of India.


2.3 Taxonomical Data on Rattan

Rattan in India are mainly distributed in the evergreen, semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests in the Western Ghats of Penninsular India, Eastern and North-eastern India and the Andamans & Nicobar Islands (Basu, 1985). Total 53 species belonging to the 4 genera viz. Calamus, Daemonorops, Korthalsia and Plectocomia occur in the country (Renuka, 1996). Their taxonomy and distribution in India is given in Table 3.

Table 3: Taxonomy and distribution of rattans

Sl. No.
Name of Rattan
Description
Distribution

1.
Calamus acanthospathus Griff.
A large climber.
North east India, Sikkim, India.

2.
Calamus andamanicus Kurz
Solitary, large diameter cane. Stem 24 m long or more, 8 cm in diameter.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

3.
Calamus baratangensis Renuka
Clustering medium diameter cane. Stem 25 m long or more, 2 cm in diameter.
Baratang Island Andamans, India.

4.
Calamus basui Renuka
Clustering medium sized cane. Stem 20 m long, 3 cm in diameter.
Andamans Island, India.

5.
Calamus brandisii Becc. ex Becc. & Hk.f.
A slender, scandent, clustering shrub. Stem upto 10 m tall; girth with sheath 4-5 cm.
Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

6.
Calamus delessertianus Becc.
Moderate size, clustering cane.
South India.

7.
Calamus dilaceratus Becc.
Thick clustering cane,. Stem 20 m long, 4 cm in diameter.
Great Nicobar Island, India.

8.
Calamus dransfieldii Renuka
Moderate size cane. Stem solitary or clustering, 7-10 cm in girth.
Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India.

9.
Calamus erectus Roxb.
A densely tufted ratten.
North-east India, Sikkim. Bangladesh.

10.
Calamus flagellum Griff.
A large scandent ratten.
North-east India, Sikkim. Bangladesh.

11.
Calamus floribundus Griff.
Large scandent or climbing ratten.
North east India. Bangladesh.

12.
Calamus gamblei Becc. ex Becc. & Hk.f.
Moderate to big sized cane, climbing high into canopy. Stem 30 m long, 5-7 cm in diameter.
Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India.

13.
Calamus gamblei var. sphaerocarpa Becc.
Differs from typical by spherical fruits.
Endemic to Kerala., India.

14.
Calamus gracilis Roxb.
A slender climbing cane.
North-east India. Bangladesh.

15.
Calamus guruba Ham.
Tall slender climbing cane.
North-east India. Bangladesh.

16.
Calamus helferianus Kurz
Armed climbing cane.
Andaman Island, India.

17.
Calamus hookerianus Becc.
Moderate sized cane, climbing high into the canopy. Stems more than 10 m long, 8 cm in girth.
Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India.

18.
Calamus huegelianus Mart.
Moderate sized cane. Stems clustering, 20-30 m long, 7 cm in girth.
Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India.

19.
Calamus karnatakensis Renuka & Lakshmana.
High climbing cane. Stems clustering, 8-20 m tall, 1.5-3 cm across.
Karnataka, India.

20.
Calamus lacciferus Lakshmana
High climbing cane. Stems clustering, more than 15 m long, 5 cm in girth.
Karnataka, India.

21.
Calamus lakshmanae Renuka
High climbing cane. Stems clustering, 20 m tall, 4 cm in girth.
Karnataka, India.

22.
Calamus latifolius Roxb.
A large climber.
North-east India, Sikkim. Bangladesh. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

23.
Calamus leptospadix Griff.
Stem climbing or scrambling, stout.
North-east India, Sikkim, India.

24.
Calamus longisetus Griff.
Moderate sized cane. Stem 20 m long, 4.5 cm in diameter.
South Andamans, India.

25.
Calamus metzianus Schult.
High climbing cane. Stem upto 15 m long, clustering, 3 cm in girth.
Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India.

26.
Calamus nagbettai Fernandez & Dey
High climbing cane with clustering stem, 10-12 cm in girth.
Karnataka, India.

27.
Calamus nicobaricus Becc.
Small thin clustering cane. Stem yellowish green, 7-14 mm in diameter.
Endemic to Great Nicobar Island, India.

28.
Calamus palustris Griff.
High climbing cane. Stem solitary, more than 20 m long, 2.5 cm in diameter.
Andamans Islands, India.

29.
Calamus prasinus Lakshmana & Renuka
High climbing cane. Stem solitary 9 cm in girth.
Karnataka, India.

30.
Calamus pseudorivalis Becc.
Large climbing cane. Stem clustering, 30 m long, 1-1.25 cm in diameter.
Great Nicobar Island, India.

31.
Calamus pseudotenuis Becc. ex Becc. & Hk.f.
Slender or medium sized cane. Stems clustering.
Karnataka, India.

32.
Calamus rheedei Griff.
Slender, medium sized cane. Stems clustering.
Kerala, India.

33.
Calamus rotang Linn.
Slender, climbing cane. Stem clustring, 10 cm long, 1.5 cm in girth.
Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, India.

34.
Calamus semierectus Renuka & Vijayakumaran
Moderate sized cane. Stem solitary, 15 m long, 5 cm in diameter.
Car Nicobar Island, India.

35.
Calamus stoloniferus Renuka
Stoloniferous, high climbing cane. Stem clustering, 9 m tall, 3 cm in girth.
Karnataka, India.

36.
Calamus tenuis Roxb.
A climbing cane, thin.
North-west India, Assam, India. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

37.
Calamus thwaitesii Becc. & Hk.f.
High climbing and robust cane. Stem clustering, 20 m tall, 10-12 cm in girth.
Western Ghats i.e. Karnataka, Goa, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, India.

38.
Calamus travancoricus Bedd. ex Becc. & Hk.f.
Graceful, slender climber. Stem upto 10 m long, 2 cm in girth.
Kerala, India.

39.
Calamus unifarius Wendl. var. pentong Becc.
High climbing cane. Stem solitary, 20 m long, 3.5 cm in diameter.
Great Nicobar Island, India.

40.
Calamus vattayila Renuka
Solitary, high climbing cane. Stems 15 m long, 3 cm in girth.
Kerala, India.

41.
Calamus viminalis Willd.
Moderate size cane. Stem clustering, 20 m long, 1.8 cm in diameter.
Andaman Islands, India.

42.
Daemonorops aureus Renuka & Vijayakumaran
High climbing cane. Stem clustering, more than 20 m long, 3-5 cm in diameter.
South Andamans Island, India.

43.
Daemonorops jenkinsianus (Griff.) Mart.
High scandent cane. Stem large, upto 2.5 cm in diameter.
North east India. Sikkim, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Cultivated at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun.

44.
Daemonorops kurzianus Becc.
Large climbing cane. Stem more than 20 m long, 5 cm in diameter.
Andamans Island, India.

45.
Daemonorops mannii Becc.
Large climbing cane. Stem clustering, more than 20 m long, 3 cm in diameter.
Andamans Island, India.

46.
Daemonorops rarispinosus Renuka & Vijayakumaran
High climbing cane. Stem clustering, more than 20 m long, 2.5 cm in diameter.
Andamans Island, India.

47.
Daemonorops wrightmyoensis Renuka & Vijayakumaran
Large climbing cane. Stem clustering, more than 20 m long, 3 cm in diameter.
South Andamans Island, India.

48.
Korthalsia echinometra Becc.
High scandent cane. Stem thin, upto 20 mm in diameter.
North east India and Malay Peninsula.

49.
Korthalsia laciniosa (Griff.) Mart.
Large climbing cane. Stem clustering, branched, more than 20 m long, 2 cm in diameter.
South Andamans and Nicobar Island, India.

50.
Korthalsia rogersii Becc.
High climbing cane. Stem thin, clustering, more than 20 m long, 0.7 cm in diameter.
Andamans Island, India.

51.
Plectocomia assamica Griff.
Climbing cane.
Assam, India.

52.
Plectocomia himalayana Griff.
Large scandent cane. Stem 1.5 cm in diameter.
Sikkim, India.

53.
Plectocomia khasiana Griff.
Large climbing cane. Stem upto 4.5 cm in diameter.
Meghalaya, India.


2.4 Genetic Diversity of Bamboo

As already stated, India has 124 species of bamboo distributed through out the length and readth of the country. North-east India supports about 50% of the total genetic resources which is followed by peninsular India where the Eastern and the Western Ghats are located which accounts for about 23% of the genetic resources occurring naturally. North-western India, Indo-Gangetic plains and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands account for the remaining diversity. More than 50% of bamboo species occurring in India are endemic, and roughly 19 species are rare and threatened.

Research work on collection and evaluation of genetic resources of bamboos started in India in the 1970s, but the pace of work was rather slow. A provenance trial on Dendrocalamus strictus was laid at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun. This was followed by the work on selection, evaluation and ex-situ conservation of several economically important bamboos of north-eastern region at State Forest Research Institute, Itanagar. Under the aegis of All India Coordinated Research Programme on under-utilized and under-exploited plants, a beginning was made at the coordinating centre at Bashar, Siang district in Arunachal Pradesh to collect the available germplasm from Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya and to evaluate the material.

Recently, a major effort has been initiated by Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) to identify, evaluate and conserve the superior genetic resources of economically important species of bamboos. Accordingly, natural forests and plantations of Dendrocalamus strictus, Bambusa bambos, B. balcooa, B. tulda, B. nutans, D. hamiltonii, Melocanna baccifera, Ochlandra travancorica and Pseudoxytenanthera stocksii are being surveyed throughout the country and superior genetic resources are being collected and multiplied. ICFRE has established its network for coordinating activities related to bamboo improvement, germplasm exchange and conservation.

2.5 Genetic Diversity of Rattan

There are three centres of rattan diversity in India: Southern-Peninsular India, North-eastern India and Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Of the 53 species of rattan under the four genera, 20 species, under only one genus Calamus, are distributed in Southern-Peninsular India, 19 species in Andaman & Nicobar Islands and 14 species are known from north-eastern India.

2.6 Conservation of Bamboo

Both In-situ and ex-situ conservation measures are being adopted to preserve the genetic resources of bamboos. In-situ conservation measures include establishment of preservation plots in every state, where the biodiversity is being periodically monitored. In addition, there are 10 biosphere reserves (Maikhuri et al., 1998), 85 national parks and 450 wildlife sanctuaries (Anon., 1997), which include the natural habitat of bamboo and rattan as well. These species are also protected by the local people in sacred groves. However, in-situ conservation sites with specific emphasis on conservation of bamboo and rattan are yet to be established. The major limitations of in-situ conservation is that natural stands of bamboo and rattan are scattered in pockets over large areas making it difficult to declare several bamboo/rattan reserves.

Ex-situ conservation activities for preservation of important genetic resources of bamboo and rattan need more emphasis. So far these activities are limited to establishment of bambusetum and canarium. The live collections of bamboos are now available only in a few centres in India (Subramaniam, 1998). Some of these centres are :

(i) Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun 37 species

(ii) Van Vigyan Kendra, Chessa, Arunachal Pradesh 35 species

(iii) Arunachal Pradesh Centre Bamborium, Bashar, Siang district 31 types

(iv) Botanical Garden, Punjab University, Chandigarh 20 species

(v) Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, (Sub-centre at Nilambur) 21 species

(vi) Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, (Sub-centre at Palappilly) 51 species

(vii) Kerala Forest Research Institute Campus, Peechi, Kerala 13 species

(viii) Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Kerala 32 species

(ix) Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore 26 species

(x) Forest Department, Begur, Wynaad Division, Kerala 12 species

As mentioned earlier, recent efforts have been initiated at ICFRE, in collaboration with several other research organisations to identify and collect promising genetic resources of the more important bamboo species. Plantations are being established using the genetic resources collected under this programme for ex-situ conservation.

The work on ex-situ conservation of rattans is still at the initial stages only and needs more inputs in terms of research efforts and establishment of network between the different implementing agencies.

3.0 PRODUCTION AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

India is one of the leading countries in the world in bamboo production. In addition to their natural occurrence, bamboos are also planted on private lands particularly in homesteads, field bunds and other marginal lands available. Because of the versatile uses of bamboos there is great demand for this resource throughout India. Annual production of bamboos in India is about 4.5 m tons out of which about 1.9 m tons is supplied to the paper mills (Singhal and Gangopadhyay, 1999).

3.1 Propagation of Bamboo

Under natural conditions, bamboo seeds germinate in rainy season after gregarious flowering. The seedlings spring up and survive in large numbers on bare ground. Some of the seedlings develop into clumps after 6-12 years.

Plantations of bamboo are either raised from seeds or by vegetative propagation. The major hurdle in cultivation of bamboo from seeds is the poor availability of planting material. Most of economically important bamboo species bear seeds only 2 to 3 times in a century. Moreover, the viability of seeds is only for a short period. Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun has developed methods of storage, which considerably prolongs the viability of bamboo seeds. For example, Dendrocalamus strictus stored at 15oC over silica gel by reducing its moisture content to 5% retained viability for 34 months with 59% of germination.

Bamboo seeds germinate within 5 to 10 days of sowing and seedlings attain solitary leaf stage within 7 days in polythene bags or nursery beds. Planting in the field is done as soon as the rains set in. The earth is sloped around the plants to avoid water-logging. Proper weeding is done during the first year.

When seeds are not easily available, bamboo is propagated by the following mentioned vegetative methods:

By planting offsets: This is the easiest and commonest method. One season old culms are cut through with a slanting cut about 90-120 cm from the ground and the rhizomes are dug out alongwith the intact roots and are cut off to a length which is sufficient to include a well-developed bud. These offsets are planted out at a spacing of 7.0 x 7.0 m, sufficiently deep to cover the first 2-3 nodes. The planting out of offsets is done after pre-monsoon showers or just before the beginning of rainy season. The earth above the ground is well rammed around the offsets to prevent waterlogging. The top of the culms are cut and sealed with earth or cow dung to prevent rotting. Weeding is done during the first season.
By rhizome cuttings: Sections of fresh living rhizomes of the preceding year measure about 15-30 cm long, containing at least one bud. These are planted in small pits of 30x30x30 cm size. This method is commonly employed by the villagers for propagation monopodial bamboos.
By stem cuttings: Stem cuttings or culm segments without rhizomes but with buds when planted horizontally or vertically give a high rate of propagation in case of bamboo. In some bamboos a notch is cut to admit water into the hollow internode. Dendrocalamus strictus is successfully regenerated by planting horizontally cuttings 90 cm long from two-year-old culms (Tewari, 1992).
By macro-proliferation: A method has been developed at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun for growing of field plantable saplings of Bambusa bambos, B. tulda, Dendrocalamus strictus and D. hamiltonii through macro-proliferation on a large scale (Adarsh Kumar, 1989). In this technique, each propagule possesses the shoot, root and rhizome parts at the time of tiller separation itself, which ensures rapid establishment and excellent survival rate.
By tissue culture: Tissue culture provides an important tool for faster multiplication of superior clonal material of bamboos. The nodes bearing axillary bud are used as explant for this purpose. Single nodes with axillary buds when inoculated on MS medium with 0.5 mg/l BAP and 0.1 to 1.0 mg/l of NAA produce multiple shoots with good rooting success (Preetha et al., 1991).
3.2 Propagation of Rattan

Rattan are raised by seed, wildlings and rooted suckers. Rattan seeds can not be stored for a long time as its viability is very short. So these are sown soon after collection. However, naked seeds kept in closed bags at 22-28oC maintain high viability extending over 6 months (Goel, 1992).

The nursery beds are laid out carefully. Too much sunshine is avoided. The soil of seedbeds is loosened and cleared of leaves and roots. Before sowing the seeds are soaked in water for one or two days. The seeds are sown in nursery beds with equal amount of forest top soil and river sand. The seeds are buried just below the soil surface in lines and the bed is covered with sawdust to retain moisture. Watering is done twice a day keeping the beds under partial shade.

When the seedlings develop and at least two leaves sprout up, these are transplanted with a ball of earth to the planting site. Nursery raised seedlings at the 2-leaf stage are picked out and transferred to the polythene bags to which triple super phosphate fertilizer has been added. These seedlings are kept under shade.

Vegetative propagation methods of rattan are given below:

(i) By cuttings: Genus Korthalsia is vegetatively propagated by cuttings. The axillary shoots developed on aerial branches are raised as individual plants (Biswas and Dayal, 1995).

(ii) By sucker: Suckers alongwith intact roots form a good planting material for clustering canes. These are transplanted in polythene bags and later planted in the field. The rattan produces enough suckers for further multiplication. Indigenous species such as Calamus travancoricus, C. thwaitesii, C. gamblei etc. are proved to be tremendous success through this method (Biswas and Dayal, 1995).

(iii) By tissue culture: Tissue culture techniques in rattans have been carried out in commercially important exotic species. However, work on Indian rattans is yet to be undertaken although a study on developmental morphology of leaves in culture has been done (Padmanabhan et al., 1992).

3.3 Silvicultural Techniques for Bamboo

Flowering : There is a characteristic mechanism of flowering in bamboo. The flowering in most species is either gregarious or sporadic at fixed intervals. All culms including those of the current year die soon after flowering has occurred. Some species die within two year after flowering e.g. Bambusa bambos while others do not die but there is a significant slowing down in their growth e.g. Phyllostachys sp. Most of the bamboo fall between two physiological states of constant flowering (e.g. Bambusa atra) and constant sterility (e.g. Bambusa vulgaris). A distinct flowering cycle is seen in the case of most bamboo species in India. This may vary from 3,7,11,15,30,48,60 to 120 years. The flowering cycle works with clock work precision. All populations of a given species belonging to the same seed source, no matter where they are situated, tend to flower simultaneously.

Dendrocalamus strictus, which is the principal bamboo species of India, tends to flower both sporadically and gregariously at long intervals varying from 20 to 65 years. The period of time between two gregarious flowerings over the same area for a particular species is known as the physiological cycle. It is more or less constant for clumps of the same seed source. In case of sporadic flowering, only the culms that flower die; though the entire clump will die after gregarious flowering has taken place.

The flowering and seeding cycle of some species are given in Table 4.





Table 4: Flowering and seeding cycle of some bamboo species


Species
Flowering/Seeding cycle

(in years)

Arundinaria racemose
Approx. 30

Bambusa atra
Annual

Bambusa bambos
32-45

Bambusa tulda
35-60

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii
30

Dendrocalamus strictus
30-45

Melocanna baccifera
Approx. 45

Ochlandra travancorica
Approx. 7

Sinarundinaria falcata
28-30

Sinarundinaria wightianus
Annual

Thamnocalamus falconeri
Approx. 30

Thamnocalamus spathiflorus
16-17



Regeneration from seed: Profuse natural regeneration comes up after the occurrence of gregarious flowering. Seed viability varies from species to species they generally remain viable for one to two months. Seeds that fall on the ground germinate immediately after the beginning of the rainy season. If seeds have fallen in moist river and stream beds they may germinate even earlier.

Germination is usually complete within 1 or 2 weeks. Hundreds of seedlings come up and there is intense competition amongst them for survival. The natural thinning out process spaces out the seedlings. The better growing individuals may develop into clumps after 6 to 12 years.

The young seedlings are unable to thrive under conditions of heavy shade. They may die due to heavy shade particularly that caused by weeds though a light shade protects them from drought and frost and helps the young seedlings to develop into full-fledged clumps. Fire and grazing are extremely harmful to the young regeneration.

Congestion in Bamboo culms: It is a common problem, caused by mismanagement. Unrestricted cutting along the periphery of clumps, browsing of young shoots at the edges by cattle, continued removal of young tender shoots for food, digging of rhizomes for making sticks, prevent living rhizomes from spreading outwards. They consequently, develop within the clump, and the new culms so produced create congestion. In very bad cases, clumps appear as tangled mass of twisted and crooked bamboos, impenetrable and unworkable. Proper management is both a preventive and a remedial step.

Planting: The seedlings are planted at 6 x 6 m spacing with a total of about 250 seedlings per ha. The seedlings are irrigated immediately after transplanting. Weeding is generally required during the first year (Shanmughavel et al., 1997). Most villagers generally cultivate bamboos by planting offsets or rhizomes as seeds are not readily available. Rhizomes or offsets are dug out carefully so that the buds are not damaged and then transported to planting sites. Planting work is done immediately after the first showers of the monsoon. The plantations are ready for exploitation within 4-12 years, depending upon the prevailing climatic conditions (Negi and Naithani, 1994).

Harvesting: The bamboo forests are managed on a four-year cutting cycle employing selective felling system. Extraction of the culms start from 4-12 years after planting. The following felling rules are generally prescribed:

(i) Immature culms less than 2 years old should not be cut and removed.

(ii) Young twisted culms are cut so that new culms grow.

(iii) All the new culms and 25% of the old culms should be retained.

(iv) Cutting should begin from the side opposite to where new sprouts are emerging

(v) No clump should be clear felled except after flowering and when seeding has been completed.

(vi) Culms should be cut as long as possible leaving two internodes above ground, in any case not higher than 30 cm above ground level.

(vii) Rhizomes are not dug out and exposed.

(viii) No felling to be done during growing season viz. 1st July to 30th September in north India.

(ix) In a clump containing 12 culms or more, at least 6 mature culms over one year old should be retained.

(x) No culm should be cut from periphery of the clump even if they are mature or malformed.

Traditional users opt for selective felling system, as mature culms are unsuitable for basket weaving. However, with the emergence of the pulp an paper industries as the major consumers of bamboo, the system has been affected badly as parameters have changed with payment being based on weight. This has resulted in indiscriminate exploitation.

3.4 Silvicultural Techniques for Rattan

Natural regeneration: The members of the genus Calamus are dioecious meaning thereby that male and female plants are separate. Flowering is annual leading to long and flagellate lateral inflorescence. In most of the species, flowering starts between October and January and fruits mature between April and June. C. hookerianus is exceptional in its late flowering and fruiting behaviour as pits flowering starts from January and continues till July, correspondingly fruiting extends between July and January. In C. pseudotenuis flowering occurs twice in a season. It starts from July and the mature fruits are obtained during October-November. A second season of flowering starts from October and continues till February with the fruits maturing from April-June.

Fruits in any one inflorescence generally ripen all at one time. They have an outer scaly cover and an inner fleshy layer which in some species is sweet and edible at maturity. Seeds are viable only for a short period of about 1-2 months. The fully matured seeds germinate within two weeks.

Nursery site: The nursery site should be selected on good soil near a perennial water source. Generally temporary nurseries are preferred to ensure proximity of the nursery to the planting site. Nursery is required to be partially shaded with a thatch of palm leaves/coconut leaves/grass as canes grow well under conditions of shade.

Seed collection: Seed is the best source of propagation but its availability on a large scale is dependent on variable factors. Since canes have dioecious inflorescences and they flower only annually their extraction before flowering and the destruction of the natural habitat of canes also directly affects seed availability.

Seed usually mature in the rainy season. The best months for collection of ripe fruits are April to May. They should be collected from mature plant of heights over 12 m. It is advisable to collect fruits directly from the plants when the colour is turning from green to yellow. Only ripe fruits should be collected since they give good germination. The outer skin of the fruits have a yellowish white shine and the clusters of fruit attract ants and birds for their edible sour sweet pulp. At this stage the fruits fall down easily on shaking the plant gradually.

Fruit treatment: The ripe fruits have to be washed so as to remove the mucilaginous protective coat. Removal of outer scaly cover and inner fleshy layer from seed bring about good germination. This can be done by crushing the fruits with the hands or by pounding them gently in a motor with a wooden mallet as done for dehusking paddy. The seeds are soaked in water for about 48 hours to induce fermentation of the fleshy layer. The latter is removed by rubbing with the hands and the clean seeds settle at the bottom of the vessel and are collected. These seeds can be stored for a week but care should be taken to keep the seeds moist as dry seeds fail to germinate.

Alternatively gunny bags containing fruits may be immersed in running water for 24 hours till the fruits become soft enough for removing the mucilaginous covering of the seed coat. Then they have to be gently washed by hand till the seeds are completely separated from the pulp. These seeds are then gently rubbed with fine sand for about 15 to 20 minutes till the colour appears similar to that of coffee bean. On an average, seeds weigh about 1000 per kg.

Seed: Treated seeds are properly dried in the sun and stored in gunny bags for very brief periods i.e. till the arrival of monsoons. As a precaution suitable anti-fungal treatment is generally given to prevent damage to the seeds. When much time is not available, the seeds are stored in moist sawdust filled inside a suitable sized polythene bag for about two weeks till the seeds start germinating. Water is sprinkled over the sawdust when the upper layer gets dry. This process helps to hasten germination.

Generally cane seeds are known to be viable only for short period of about 1 to 2 months. The seed moisture content of 40-60 per cent appears to be very critical as the seeds with about 60 per cent moisture tends to germinate and below 40 per cent they become non-viable. It may be rather difficult to provide suitable storage conditions for maintaining the proper moisture content. The seeds start germinating in 30 to 40 days after sowing in polybags or directly in beds. Seedlings grow very slowly, taking 2 years to reach plantable size of about 70 cm. In C. hookerians, C. pseudotenuis and C. ornatus may take 1-7 months for completing the germination process.

Wildlings: In Andaman & Nicobar Islands, which is one of large cane producing areas, canes are generally grown by collecting the healthy wildlings from the nearby forest area and planted in the field on the same day. Care is taken to collect the wildlings on a rainy day and the seedlings are protected from sunlight to prevent desiccation. While collecting the wildlings are then planted in one cubic feet pits in the teak plantation area and other areas where there is little or no cane growth.

Planting: One-year seedlings of rattan are transplanted in the field. About 1.5 m wide grooves are cleared at a spacing of 5 m in secondary forests. Seedlings are planted in the grooves at 5 m intervals. For 2-3 years, the soil is loosened around the clumps and mulching the clumps with humus is done. The young plants do not require much light in the beginning. When thorns grow, the additional light is required to provide by clearing unwanted growth around young plants. Rattans then begin to climb on the trees. The growth of young seedlings is arrested during winter. The beds are covered with grass thatches.

Harvesting: Extraction of cane in India is done by experienced and skilled persons. For large canes, a man has to climb up the supporting tree to release them. Harvesting is carried out by cutting the culms from the base (25-30 cm above the ground level) and dragging them out. About 2 m shoot at the top is discarded. The remaining portion is cut into 5 to 6 pieces, folded over at the middle and tied into bundles. Then it is immediately shifted to the processing place before the stems begin to deteriorate. After drying, the canes are scrapped to remove the leaf sheath remnants and then stored. The best season for harvesting is October/November.

In India, the extraction of rattan is done through the departmental agencies, such as Forest Corporations or Tribal Cooperative Societies. The present status of harvesting rattan is not conservation oriented. The new working plans make the following prescriptions for rattan harvesting:

(i) Rotation of 5 years

(ii) Extraction of canes should be limited to two-thirds of the total clump.

(iii) Only mature canes of not less than 2 m height should be extracted.

(iv) Cutting is done at least 30 cm above the ground.

3.5 Plantations and Agroforestry

Bamboo is not only grown in forests but is also raised in homesteads and farms. It can be planted under agroforestry system and practices. Bamboo plantations mainly of Dendrocalamus strictus are being raised by different state forest departments. However, there are two main problems: (i) availability of planting stock and (ii) protection of plantation areas.

In agroforestry systems where each plant receives individual care, bamboo shows promising results. The economic impact of the agroforestry with bamboo considerably influences general economic development. This system is especially important and significant for developing country like India. Under this system because of use of various intercrops, products are obtained even in the early stages of plantations and the income is much higher than any other system. Seshagiri (1985) concluded that cultivation of soyabean (Glycine max) alongwith Dendrocalamus strictus was technically feasible and economically viable. Balaji (1991) stated that the scope for bamboo in agroforestry in India was very wide because of the uncertain weather conditions and the increasing cost of labour involved in raising agricultural crops on marginal lands rendered the later option less attractive. Wagh and Rajput (1991) concluded that bamboo was the most profitable of the 6 horticultural crops studied by them in Konkan region in India.

Very little information is available on the growth performance of rattans under plantation and agroforestry systems.



4.0 PROCESSING AND UTILISATION



Researches have been conducted at Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun on processing and utilization of bamboos. Strength properties of 20 species were studied and different species classified for different end uses based on these properties. Methods of tests were standardized and later adopted as the national standard. Models were developed and demonstrated for making bamboo trusses for roofing in housing and small to medium sized industrial sheds. Theoretical models were developed for making bamboo columns for mining purposes. Successful use of treated bamboo for reinforcement in mud has been demonstrated. Split bamboo was found to be stronger tha

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